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????教育惩戒权如何实施才有效  导读:近段时间以来,教育领域出现多起教师惩戒失当的案例,如陕西一教师长期辱骂学生、山东一教师用课本抽打逃课学生等,引发社会广泛关注。近日,中共中央、国务院发布《关于深化教育教学改革全面提高义务教育质量的意见》明确提出,将“制定实施细则,明确教师教育惩戒权”。是否有必要通过立法形式明确赋予教师惩戒权?惩戒权应该如何行使才能既确保教师履行教育管理职责,又维护学生身心健康?本期“声音版”邀请相关专家、教师、学生及家长一道进行探讨,敬请读者关注。  学者声音   以法治思维看待惩戒权入法呼声

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????  □ 靳澜涛  伴随着教师法修订工作的日趋深入,许多具体的制度设计问题成为社会各界关注和讨论的重点。其中,“惩戒权入法”的呼声此起彼伏,明确赋予教师惩戒权似乎已势在必行。  惩戒,是学校以及教师维护正常校风校纪和确保教育管理秩序的重要手段,主要目的是用以纠正学生的失范行为,实现育人目标,其在本质上同激励、表扬、说教等方式是一样的。对“要不要惩戒权”的回应似乎并无过多理论障碍。真正的难点和争议点在于:作为应然权利和默示权利的惩戒权是否需要明确入法,是否可以将其直接纳入教师法关于教师权利的规定,以及哪些行为需要惩戒,怎么实施惩戒,根据什么惩戒,等等。  面对实践中教师不敢管、不能管、不想管或者过度惩戒,乃至体罚等现实问题,惩戒权的明确化、规范化和制度化确实具有现实的必要性与紧迫性。然而,是否将其纳入本次教师法的修订内容,特别是作为一项明示的教师权利予以列举,仍然需要仔细拿捏。只有慎重考虑其入法的必要性、可行性、条文逻辑上的自洽性和实践落实中的可操作性,才能做到科学立法。  第一,教师法尚未明确规定教师惩戒权,并不是对实践中惩戒行为的全盘否定。惩戒,是教师进行教学管理的一种方式或手段,具有附属性和工具性,并非一项独立的权能,其最终指向仍然是教书育人之目的。目前,教师法第7条已经明确规定,教师享有“进行教育教学活动”“指导学生的学习和发展”等权利。从目的与手段的关系来看,惩戒权是教师实现教育教学权和指导评价权的必要与合适的手段,其通过法律解释和逻辑推理,完全可以得到立法的肯认,并将在个案中接受比例原则的严格审查。因此,针对教师惩戒权,所谓立法缺位和实践失范的理论质疑本就需要理性认识。在“惩戒权入法”的社会呼声之下,应当跳出立法中心主义的窠臼,深刻认识到惩戒权与教育教学权、指导评价权之间的层次性和包含性,并充分重视法律原则尤其是比例原则的适用空间。  第二,惩戒权的赋予主要针对义务教育阶段的教师,主体上具有特定性。无论是山东青岛出台的《中小学校管理办法》,还是广东省司法厅公布的《广东省学校安全条例》(送审稿),抑或中央层面最新出台的《关于深化教育教学改革全面提高义务教育质量的意见》,这些地方立法或者中央政策文件虽然直接或间接地提出“教师惩戒权”这一概念,但均将权利主体限定于中小学教师,权利行使的对象主要针对未成年人,这一点应当引起足够的重视。尽管不同学段教师的权利与义务不尽相同,亟须立法予以类型化规范。但是,从实然角度来看,时下的教师法作为教师行业的基本法,其权利义务的规定应该着眼于整个教师职业的共性特征,而非局限于某一特定学段的教师。因此,将惩戒权的行使条件、实施方式、范围限度、不法后果、救济途径等问题交由具体的法规、规章或者规范性文件来明确,似乎更为妥当,如此既有助于推进惩戒行为的规范化与法治化,也确保了法律条文的自洽性以及不同立法之间的衔接性。  第三,教育法、教师法、未成年人保护法等相关法律规定均禁止体罚与变相体罚,但是鲜有立法条文进一步明确规定何为体罚与变相体罚。如果教师法正式载入教师惩戒权,社会公众会渐次叩问:什么是惩戒权,它的边界在哪里,内容和形式又是什么,哪些行为不属于教育惩戒的范畴,惩戒与体罚、变相体罚如何区分,这些都是较为棘手的理论问题,学界尚未形成共识,现有立法也语焉不详。如果抛开这些争议问题,只是模糊地将“批评教育或适当惩戒”作为教师权利之一,必将面临立法语言的精准度质疑和现实中的权利滥用问题。况且,在实践中,学生及其监护人对体罚与变相体罚的理解往往趋于泛化,教师过去经常使用的罚站、罚作业等惩戒手段不时被认为是体罚或变相体罚,对学生的训诫也有可能被贴上“侮辱人格尊严”的标签。如果明确赋予教师以惩戒权,却又漠视其行使范围和实施强度,显然缺乏现实中的可操作性,必将使得教师惩戒权的运用更加形骸化,由此产生的矛盾纠纷不容小觑。对于多数教师而言,仍然会基于尺度的拿捏不准而不敢举起“戒尺”。  只有对上述问题进行审慎思考,才能最终实现科学立法,这也是惩戒权明确化、规范化和制度化的重要前提。 (作者单位:北京大学教育法研究中心)    律师声音   依法治教呼唤惩戒权明确化与规范化  □ 张家瑞  教师惩戒权,是一个备受关注的社会话题。概念的模糊与立法的薄弱,导致惩戒权在现实运行中呈现出“强”与“弱”两极化的面目:一方面,教师滥用惩戒权,甚至体罚、变相体罚的事件时有发生,由此引发的矛盾,特别是涉诉纠纷并不鲜见。另一方面,鉴于学生及其监护人的“强势地位”,教师“不敢管”“不愿管”的现象在许多地方较为普遍。这种强弱两极化的悖论反映出教师惩戒权运行的失衡和无序。在依法治校、依法治教的时代背景下,通过立法明确教师惩戒权的内涵、范围、程度、形式、程序等,进一步规范与保障惩戒行为的实施,有利于教师权益和学生权益的双向保护。  首先,通过实体性和程序性的立法明确教师惩戒权,有助于化解教育行政纠纷,尤其是涉诉纷争。近年来,学生家长以“体罚或者变相体罚”为由状告学校以及教师的诉讼并不鲜见,使原本风平浪静的校园波澜迭起。究其根本原因就在于,教师惩戒权的行使缺乏必要的约束与保障,对于惩戒主体、惩戒范围、惩戒方式、惩戒程序等,现行法律规定均语焉不详,无法区分惩戒和体罚乃至变相体罚之间的行为界限,一旦发生纠纷不利于双方维权,导致原本破损的师生关系也难以修复。  其次,教育惩戒权的明确化与规范化,是顺应依法治校、依法治教潮流的必然要求。中共中央、国务院于日前发布的《关于深化教育教学改革全面提高义务教育质量的意见》提出,“制定实施细则,明确教师教育惩戒权”。山东、广东等多地也通过地方立法的形式赋予教师以惩戒权。“教育”本就有两层含义,除了教授和引领之外,还包括对失范行为进行矫治和规范。正如苏联教育学家马卡连柯所言,“适当的惩戒不仅是老师的权利,更是老师的义务,不了解惩戒,老师就放弃了一部分自己应尽的职责”。在教育制度日益完善的背景下,教师惩戒权的立法完善已经成为现阶段基础教育法治化的重要内容。  最后,适当的惩戒是教师合法行使教育权的一种方式。在此方面,美国、英国、日本等国关于教师惩戒权的法律规定可以给我国以诸多启示。例如,日本《学校教育法》第11条规定:校长和教员认为在教育上有必要时,可以按照监督机关的规定,对学生和儿童进行惩戒,但不得体罚。美国则将教育惩戒明确划分为训示、剥夺权利、留校、学业制裁等九种形式,并确立了“正当的法律程序”。英国教育部为了细化惩戒权的行使,还在2014年专门出台了《学校中的行为与纪律:给校长和教师的建议》,该部准则对惩戒类型、条件、限度等作了总体规定。  教育惩戒作为一种管理和教育学生的方式,不可不用,亦不可滥用,既要做到有法可依,也要做到有法必依。惩戒权的明确化与规范化,既是我国教育行政纠纷化解的应然之义,也是对国际教育立法经验的有益借鉴。         (作者单位:北京君众律师事务所)    老师声音   老师为何不敢用教育戒尺  □ 林日新  笔者是一位中学教师。此前笔者把青岛和广东立法明确中小学教师惩戒权的消息跟同事分享时,大家的反应并不乐观:“不敢,给我也不敢用!”“管教学生就像玩扫雷,你不知道什么时候哪颗雷会爆,有时还可能是子母雷,让人提心胆吊,你批评教育了一个学生还得忐忑几天。”  为何教师不敢用教育惩戒权?因为过多的教育案例太令人心寒了。学生玩MP4与老师在课堂上起争执,老师被处理;学生上课玩手机,老师抢夺手机遭停职;更有甚者:湖南一老师要学生写作业,竟挨了学生26刀;辽宁一老师,因没收学生上课玩的扑克牌,惨死在讲台旁……放眼当今教育,“把老师当学生管,把学生当祖宗供”在一些地方并不鲜见,如有“不识时务者”敢胆拿回本属于自己的惩戒权,那可能将付出高昂的代价:2017年黑龙江省齐齐哈尔市一名女副校长面对无法无天的熊学生说:“老师我不当了,就不惯着你”。后来,这名女副校长真的被免职了。  总之,如果社会各方不能就教育惩戒达成共识、一旦惩戒学生老师就被处分降职的生态环境不改善,那么即使教育部门授予教师惩戒权,也没有多少教师敢于行使这一权力。  对惩戒权的运用要有监管  □ 王军荣  最近一审宣判的学生打老师事件引起了社会广泛关注。学生在20年后打老师,无论是学生还是老师,都是件痛苦的事,现在学生可能面临牢狱之灾,而老师也是斯文扫地,这件事对教育也有很大的反思,即教育惩戒权需要怎样的正确打开方式?  笔者认为,对于教育惩戒权一方面需要制定细则,让老师能够把握度。哪些方式可以用,哪些方式不能用,要用到何种程度,不仅要规定得细,而且还要对老师进行培训,让老师熟练掌握,做到不越界。笔者是位职业高中老师,职业高中学生由于在初中遭遇学习上的失败,变得很敏感,再加上对自尊看得尤其重,对于老师的惩罚往往很排斥,甚至用实际行动进行抗议,这让我在平时的教育中有束手束脚的感觉,采取的惩罚也多是打扫教室或罚背诵,效果不太理想。如果有明确的规定,我会采取更有针对性的惩戒措施,相信这样的教育效果才会变得理想。  另一方面,学校对老师使用教育惩戒权要有监管,要对体罚学生的行为给予严厉的惩罚。如此,才不会使教育惩戒权偏离轨道,甚至变异为体罚。同时,还需要给学生表达诉求的渠道,比如学生觉得被老师惩罚重了,可以提出诉求,学校要给予回应,以此化解学生心中的郁结。  家长声音   教育惩戒要有标准  □ 苑广阔  作为一名小学四年级学生的家长,我对赋予老师合理的惩戒权持双手赞同的态度,这不仅仅源于自己当年作为小学生的经历和感受,同时也源于中小学阶段孩子的心理特点。当老师的苦口婆心被孩子当成了耳旁风,适当的惩戒的确可以帮助孩子改掉坏毛病,变得积极向上起来。我们现在需要做的,就是如何制定切实可行的实施细则,以便既保证老师拥有和使用惩戒权,又避免惩戒权沦为我们惯常所说的体罚。  近段时间,出现了多起教师惩戒学生失当的案例,如果我们从教育惩戒权的角度来观察,不难发现,教育工作者自己也确实还没有把握好惩戒的尺度,稍不留神就可能越界。所以说,教育惩戒权很有必要,但是一定要有标准、有实施细则来保障其实施。也只有这样,惩戒权才能在发挥现实作用的同时,也得到绝大多数学生家长的理解与支持。  惩戒也是一种教育  □ 潘铎印  作为一名家长,我认为,教育本身包含着惩戒的意味。对待不求上进或违反校园纪律的学生,老师就应当给予适度的惩戒,惩戒也是一种教育,教育的内容不能没有惩戒。在教育中过于强调赏识和鼓励,甚至毫无保留地过分鼓励,也是片面的甚至是偏激的,并不利于学生健全人格的培养。在倡导表扬、奖励、赏识教育的同时,不应该忽视惩戒在教育中的积极作用。其实,我国教育法明确规定,学校及其他教育机构有“对受教育者进行学籍管理,实施奖励或处分”的权力。这至少在一定程度上可以推断教师使用惩戒权是法律赋予的一种权力。  目前有必要从法律上进一步明确惩戒主体、方式、操作程序、惩戒的适用条件范围和惩戒的程度等,既让老师惩戒有法律依据,也保证惩戒的公平公正,起到教育效果。没有惩戒的教育是虚弱的教育、脆弱的教育、不负责任的教育。但教育惩戒也不是包治百病的良药,学校和老师也要重视立德树人的教育方式方法。  学生声音   可以批评但别侮辱体罚  □ 刘 雯  我之前上小学时,班主任(也是我们语文老师)比较严厉,如果我们作业没有按时完成,或者考试成绩不理想就会被批评;如果违反课堂纪律,他会拿棍子或者戒尺打学生的手掌心,我也挨过打。不过因为挨打的学生比较多,所以我也没有觉得自尊心受到特别大的伤害,也没有给我留下心理阴影,只是在随后上课时更认真一些。  我初中所在的班级学生学习成绩普遍比较好,老师们的性格也都比较温和,如果有学生犯错误,或者影响老师正常上课时,老师也会批评,但一般都是就事论事地说,不会说侮辱性的话。即使是老师特别生气,大发雷霆时,顶多也只是气势上比较严厉,但也不会侮辱学生,或者体罚学生。  现在我马上要上高中了,回过头来看,我觉得如果学生过于调皮捣蛋,影响课堂学习纪律,那么老师就应该批评,不然会影响其他学生正常上课。但尽量不要打学生,一是挨打很疼,二是随着我们逐渐长大,挨打也容易伤自尊心,让我们在同学中没有面子。

    jin lan tao   ban sui zhe jiao shi fa xiu ding gong zuo de ri qu shen ru, xu duo ju ti de zhi du she ji wen ti cheng wei she hui ge jie guan zhu he tao lun de zhong dian. qi zhong," cheng jie quan ru fa" de hu sheng ci qi bi fu, ming que fu yu jiao shi cheng jie quan si hu yi shi zai bi xing.   cheng jie, shi xue xiao yi ji jiao shi wei hu zheng chang xiao feng xiao ji he que bao jiao yu guan li zhi xu de zhong yao shou duan, zhu yao mu di shi yong yi jiu zheng xue sheng de shi fan xing wei, shi xian yu ren mu biao, qi zai ben zhi shang tong ji li biao yang shuo jiao deng fang shi shi yi yang de. dui" yao bu yao cheng jie quan" de hui ying si hu bing wu guo duo li lun zhang ai. zhen zheng de nan dian he zheng yi dian zai yu: zuo wei ying ran quan li he mo shi quan li de cheng jie quan shi fou xu yao ming que ru fa, shi fou ke yi jiang qi zhi jie na ru jiao shi fa guan yu jiao shi quan li de gui ding, yi ji nei xie xing wei xu yao cheng jie, zen me shi shi cheng jie, gen ju shen me cheng jie, deng deng.   mian dui shi jian zhong jiao shi bu gan guan bu neng guan bu xiang guan huo zhe guo du cheng jie, nai zhi ti fa deng xian shi wen ti, cheng jie quan de ming que hua gui fan hua he zhi du hua que shi ju you xian shi de bi yao xing yu jin po xing. ran er, shi fou jiang qi na ru ben ci jiao shi fa de xiu ding nei rong, te bie shi zuo wei yi xiang ming shi de jiao shi quan li yu yi lie ju, reng ran xu yao zi xi na nie. zhi you shen zhong kao lv qi ru fa de bi yao xing ke xing xing tiao wen luo ji shang de zi qia xing he shi jian luo shi zhong de ke cao zuo xing, cai neng zuo dao ke xue li fa.   di yi, jiao shi fa shang wei ming que gui ding jiao shi cheng jie quan, bing bu shi dui shi jian zhong cheng jie xing wei de quan pan fou ding. cheng jie, shi jiao shi jin xing jiao xue guan li de yi zhong fang shi huo shou duan, ju you fu shu xing he gong ju xing, bing fei yi xiang du li de quan neng, qi zui zhong zhi xiang reng ran shi jiao shu yu ren zhi mu di. mu qian, jiao shi fa di 7 tiao yi jing ming que gui ding, jiao shi xiang you" jin xing jiao yu jiao xue huo dong"" zhi dao xue sheng de xue xi he fa zhan" deng quan li. cong mu di yu shou duan de guan xi lai kan, cheng jie quan shi jiao shi shi xian jiao yu jiao xue quan he zhi dao ping jia quan de bi yao yu he shi de shou duan, qi tong guo fa lv jie shi he luo ji tui li, wan quan ke yi de dao li fa de ken ren, bing jiang zai ge an zhong jie shou bi li yuan ze de yan ge shen zha. yin ci, zhen dui jiao shi cheng jie quan, suo wei li fa que wei he shi jian shi fan de li lun zhi yi ben jiu xu yao li xing ren shi. zai" cheng jie quan ru fa" de she hui hu sheng zhi xia, ying dang tiao chu li fa zhong xin zhu yi de ke jiu, shen ke ren shi dao cheng jie quan yu jiao yu jiao xue quan zhi dao ping jia quan zhi jian de ceng ci xing he bao han xing, bing chong fen zhong shi fa lv yuan ze you qi shi bi li yuan ze de shi yong kong jian.   di er, cheng jie quan de fu yu zhu yao zhen dui yi wu jiao yu jie duan de jiao shi, zhu ti shang ju you te ding xing. wu lun shi shan dong qing dao chu tai de zhong xiao xue xiao guan li ban fa, hai shi guang dong sheng si fa ting gong bu de guang dong sheng xue xiao an quan tiao li song shen gao, yi huo zhong yang ceng mian zui xin chu tai de guan yu shen hua jiao yu jiao xue gai ge quan mian ti gao yi wu jiao yu zhi liang de yi jian, zhei xie di fang li fa huo zhe zhong yang zheng ce wen jian sui ran zhi jie huo jian jie di ti chu" jiao shi cheng jie quan" zhe yi gai nian, dan jun jiang quan li zhu ti xian ding yu zhong xiao xue jiao shi, quan li xing shi de dui xiang zhu yao zhen dui wei cheng nian ren, zhe yi dian ying dang yin qi zu gou de zhong shi. jin guan bu tong xue duan jiao shi de quan li yu yi wu bu jin xiang tong, ji xu li fa yu yi lei xing hua gui fan. dan shi, cong shi ran jiao du lai kan, shi xia de jiao shi fa zuo wei jiao shi hang ye de ji ben fa, qi quan li yi wu de gui ding ying gai zhao yan yu zheng ge jiao shi zhi ye de gong xing te zheng, er fei ju xian yu mou yi te ding xue duan de jiao shi. yin ci, jiang cheng jie quan de xing shi tiao jian shi shi fang shi fan wei xian du bu fa hou guo jiu ji tu jing deng wen ti jiao you ju ti de fa gui gui zhang huo zhe gui fan xing wen jian lai ming que, si hu geng wei tuo dang, ru ci ji you zhu yu tui jin cheng jie xing wei de gui fan hua yu fa zhi hua, ye que bao le fa lv tiao wen de zi qia xing yi ji bu tong li fa zhi jian de xian jie xing.   di san, jiao yu fa jiao shi fa wei cheng nian ren bao hu fa deng xiang guan fa lv gui ding jun jin zhi ti fa yu bian xiang ti fa, dan shi xian you li fa tiao wen jin yi bu ming que gui ding he wei ti fa yu bian xiang ti fa. ru guo jiao shi fa zheng shi zai ru jiao shi cheng jie quan, she hui gong zhong hui jian ci kou wen: shen me shi cheng jie quan, ta de bian jie zai na li, nei rong he xing shi you shi shen me, nei xie xing wei bu shu yu jiao yu cheng jie de fan chou, cheng jie yu ti fa bian xiang ti fa ru he qu fen, zhei xie dou shi jiao wei ji shou de li lun wen ti, xue jie shang wei xing cheng gong shi, xian you li fa ye yu yan bu xiang. ru guo pao kai zhei xie zheng yi wen ti, zhi shi mo hu di jiang" pi ping jiao yu huo shi dang cheng jie" zuo wei jiao shi quan li zhi yi, bi jiang mian lin li fa yu yan de jing zhun du zhi yi he xian shi zhong de quan li lan yong wen ti. kuang qie, zai shi jian zhong, xue sheng ji qi jian hu ren dui ti fa yu bian xiang ti fa de li jie wang wang qu yu fan hua, jiao shi guo qu jing chang shi yong de fa zhan fa zuo ye deng cheng jie shou duan bu shi bei ren wei shi ti fa huo bian xiang ti fa, dui xue sheng de xun jie ye you ke neng bei tie shang" wu ru ren ge zun yan" de biao qian. ru guo ming que fu yu jiao shi yi cheng jie quan, que you mo shi qi xing shi fan wei he shi shi qiang du, xian ran que fa xian shi zhong de ke cao zuo xing, bi jiang shi de jiao shi cheng jie quan de yun yong geng jia xing hai hua, you ci chan sheng de mao dun jiu fen bu rong xiao qu. dui yu duo shu jiao shi er yan, reng ran hui ji yu chi du de na nie bu zhun er bu gan ju qi" jie chi".   zhi you dui shang shu wen ti jin xing shen shen si kao, cai neng zui zhong shi xian ke xue li fa, zhe ye shi cheng jie quan ming que hua gui fan hua he zhi du hua de zhong yao qian ti.  zuo zhe dan wei: bei jing da xue jiao yu fa yan jiu zhong xin     lv shi sheng yin    yi fa zhi jiao hu huan cheng jie quan ming que hua yu gui fan hua    zhang jia rui   jiao shi cheng jie quan, shi yi ge bei shou guan zhu de she hui hua ti. gai nian de mo hu yu li fa de bo ruo, dao zhi cheng jie quan zai xian shi yun xing zhong cheng xian chu" qiang" yu" ruo" liang ji hua de mian mu: yi fang mian, jiao shi lan yong cheng jie quan, shen zhi ti fa bian xiang ti fa de shi jian shi you fa sheng, you ci yin fa de mao dun, te bie shi she su jiu fen bing bu xian jian. ling yi fang mian, jian yu xue sheng ji qi jian hu ren de" qiang shi di wei", jiao shi" bu gan guan"" bu yuan guan" de xian xiang zai xu duo di fang jiao wei pu bian. zhe zhong qiang ruo liang ji hua de bei lun fan ying chu jiao shi cheng jie quan yun xing de shi heng he wu xu. zai yi fa zhi xiao yi fa zhi jiao de shi dai bei jing xia, tong guo li fa ming que jiao shi cheng jie quan de nei han fan wei cheng du xing shi cheng xu deng, jin yi bu gui fan yu bao zhang cheng jie xing wei de shi shi, you li yu jiao shi quan yi he xue sheng quan yi de shuang xiang bao hu.   shou xian, tong guo shi ti xing he cheng xu xing de li fa ming que jiao shi cheng jie quan, you zhu yu hua jie jiao yu xing zheng jiu fen, you qi shi she su fen zheng. jin nian lai, xue sheng jia zhang yi" ti fa huo zhe bian xiang ti fa" wei you zhuang gao xue xiao yi ji jiao shi de su song bing bu xian jian, shi yuan ben feng ping lang jing de xiao yuan bo lan die qi. jiu qi gen ben yuan yin jiu zai yu, jiao shi cheng jie quan de xing shi que fa bi yao de yue shu yu bao zhang, dui yu cheng jie zhu ti cheng jie fan wei cheng jie fang shi cheng jie cheng xu deng, xian xing fa lv gui ding jun yu yan bu xiang, wu fa qu fen cheng jie he ti fa nai zhi bian xiang ti fa zhi jian de xing wei jie xian, yi dan fa sheng jiu fen bu li yu shuang fang wei quan, dao zhi yuan ben po sun de shi sheng guan xi ye nan yi xiu fu.   qi ci, jiao yu cheng jie quan de ming que hua yu gui fan hua, shi shun ying yi fa zhi xiao yi fa zhi jiao chao liu de bi ran yao qiu. zhong gong zhong yang guo wu yuan yu ri qian fa bu de guan yu shen hua jiao yu jiao xue gai ge quan mian ti gao yi wu jiao yu zhi liang de yi jian ti chu," zhi ding shi shi xi ze, ming que jiao shi jiao yu cheng jie quan". shan dong guang dong deng duo di ye tong guo di fang li fa de xing shi fu yu jiao shi yi cheng jie quan." jiao yu" ben jiu you liang ceng han yi, chu le jiao shou he yin ling zhi wai, hai bao kuo dui shi fan xing wei jin xing jiao zhi he gui fan. zheng ru su lian jiao yu xue jia ma ka lian ke suo yan," shi dang de cheng jie bu jin shi lao shi de quan li, geng shi lao shi de yi wu, bu liao jie cheng jie, lao shi jiu fang qi le yi bu fen zi ji ying jin de zhi ze". zai jiao yu zhi du ri yi wan shan de bei jing xia, jiao shi cheng jie quan de li fa wan shan yi jing cheng wei xian jie duan ji chu jiao yu fa zhi hua de zhong yao nei rong.   zui hou, shi dang de cheng jie shi jiao shi he fa xing shi jiao yu quan de yi zhong fang shi. zai ci fang mian, mei guo ying guo ri ben deng guo guan yu jiao shi cheng jie quan de fa lv gui ding ke yi gei wo guo yi zhu duo qi shi. li ru, ri ben xue xiao jiao yu fa di 11 tiao gui ding: xiao zhang he jiao yuan ren wei zai jiao yu shang you bi yao shi, ke yi an zhao jian du ji guan de gui ding, dui xue sheng he er tong jin xing cheng jie, dan bu de ti fa. mei guo ze jiang jiao yu cheng jie ming que hua fen wei xun shi bo duo quan li liu xiao xue ye zhi cai deng jiu zhong xing shi, bing que li le" zheng dang de fa lv cheng xu". ying guo jiao yu bu wei le xi hua cheng jie quan de xing shi, hai zai 2014 nian zhuan men chu tai le xue xiao zhong de xing wei yu ji lv: gei xiao zhang he jiao shi de jian yi, gai bu zhun ze dui cheng jie lei xing tiao jian xian du deng zuo le zong ti gui ding.   jiao yu cheng jie zuo wei yi zhong guan li he jiao yu xue sheng de fang shi, bu ke bu yong, yi bu ke lan yong, ji yao zuo dao you fa ke yi, ye yao zuo dao you fa bi yi. cheng jie quan de ming que hua yu gui fan hua, ji shi wo guo jiao yu xing zheng jiu fen hua jie de ying ran zhi yi, ye shi dui guo ji jiao yu li fa jing yan de you yi jie jian.          zuo zhe dan wei: bei jing jun zhong lv shi shi wu suo     lao shi sheng yin    lao shi wei he bu gan yong jiao yu jie chi    lin ri xin   bi zhe shi yi wei zhong xue jiao shi. ci qian bi zhe ba qing dao he guang dong li fa ming que zhong xiao xue jiao shi cheng jie quan de xiao xi gen tong shi fen xiang shi, da jia de fan ying bing bu le guan:" bu gan, gei wo ye bu gan yong!"" guan jiao xue sheng jiu xiang wan sao lei, ni bu zhi dao shen me shi hou na ke lei hui bao, you shi hai ke neng shi zi mu lei, rang ren ti xin dan diao, ni pi ping jiao yu le yi ge xue sheng huan de tan te ji tian."   wei he jiao shi bu gan yong jiao yu cheng jie quan? yin wei guo duo de jiao yu an li tai ling ren xin han le. xue sheng wan MP4 yu lao shi zai ke tang shang qi zheng zhi, lao shi bei chu li xue sheng shang ke wan shou ji, lao shi qiang duo shou ji zao ting zhi geng you shen zhe: hu nan yi lao shi yao xue sheng xie zuo ye, jing ai le xue sheng 26 dao liao ning yi lao shi, yin mo shou xue sheng shang ke wan de pu ke pai, can si zai jiang tai pang fang yan dang jin jiao yu," ba lao shi dang xue sheng guan, ba xue sheng dang zu zong gong" zai yi xie di fang bing bu xian jian, ru you" bu shi shi wu zhe" gan dan na hui ben shu yu zi ji de cheng jie quan, na ke neng jiang fu chu gao ang de dai jia: 2017 nian hei long jiang sheng qi qi ha er shi yi ming nv fu xiao zhang mian dui wu fa wu tian de xiong xue sheng shuo:" lao shi wo bu dang le, jiu bu guan zhe ni". hou lai, zhe ming nv fu xiao zhang zhen de bei mian zhi le.   zong zhi, ru guo she hui ge fang bu neng jiu jiao yu cheng jie da cheng gong shi yi dan cheng jie xue sheng lao shi jiu bei chu fen jiang zhi de sheng tai huan jing bu gai shan, na me ji shi jiao yu bu men shou yu jiao shi cheng jie quan, ye mei you duo shao jiao shi gan yu xing shi zhe yi quan li.   dui cheng jie quan de yun yong yao you jian guan    wang jun rong   zui jin yi shen xuan pan de xue sheng da lao shi shi jian yin qi le she hui guang fan guan zhu. xue sheng zai 20 nian hou da lao shi, wu lun shi xue sheng huan shi lao shi, dou shi jian tong ku de shi, xian zai xue sheng ke neng mian lin lao yu zhi zai, er lao shi ye shi si wen sao di, zhe jian shi dui jiao yu ye you hen da de fan si, ji jiao yu cheng jie quan xu yao zen yang de zheng que da kai fang shi?   bi zhe ren wei, dui yu jiao yu cheng jie quan yi fang mian xu yao zhi ding xi ze, rang lao shi neng gou ba wo du. nei xie fang shi ke yi yong, nei xie fang shi bu neng yong, yao yong dao he zhong cheng du, bu jin yao gui ding de xi, er qie hai yao dui lao shi jin xing pei xun, rang lao shi shu lian zhang wo, zuo dao bu yue jie. bi zhe shi wei zhi ye gao zhong lao shi, zhi ye gao zhong xue sheng you yu zai chu zhong zao yu xue xi shang de shi bai, bian de hen min gan, zai jia shang dui zi zun kan de you qi zhong, dui yu lao shi de cheng fa wang wang hen pai chi, shen zhi yong shi ji xing dong jin xing kang yi, zhe rang wo zai ping shi de jiao yu zhong you shu shou shu jiao de gan jue, cai qu de cheng fa ye duo shi da sao jiao shi huo fa bei song, xiao guo bu tai li xiang. ru guo you ming que de gui ding, wo hui cai qu geng you zhen dui xing de cheng jie cuo shi, xiang xin zhe yang de jiao yu xiao guo cai hui bian de li xiang.   ling yi fang mian, xue jiao dui lao shi shi yong jiao yu cheng jie quan yao you jian guan, yao dui ti fa xue sheng de xing wei ji yu yan li de cheng fa. ru ci, cai bu hui shi jiao yu cheng jie quan pian li gui dao, shen zhi bian yi wei ti fa. tong shi, hai xu yao gei xue sheng biao da su qiu de qu dao, bi ru xue sheng jue de bei lao shi cheng fa zhong le, ke yi ti chu su qiu, xue xiao yao ji yu hui ying, yi ci hua jie xue sheng xin zhong de yu jie.   jia zhang sheng yin    jiao yu cheng jie yao you biao zhun    yuan guang kuo   zuo wei yi ming xiao xue si nian ji xue sheng de jia zhang, wo dui fu yu lao shi he li de cheng jie quan chi shuang shou zan tong de tai du, zhe bu jin jin yuan yu zi ji dang nian zuo wei xiao xue sheng de jing li he gan shou, tong shi ye yuan yu zhong xiao xue jie duan hai zi de xin li te dian. dang lao shi de ku kou po xin bei hai zi dang cheng le er pang feng, shi dang de cheng jie di que ke yi bang zhu hai zi gai diao huai mao bing, bian de ji ji xiang shang qi lai. wo men xian zai xu yao zuo de, jiu shi ru he zhi ding qie shi ke xing de shi shi xi ze, yi bian ji bao zheng lao shi yong you he shi yong cheng jie quan, you bi mian cheng jie quan lun wei wo men guan chang suo shuo de ti fa.   jin duan shi jian, chu xian le duo qi jiao shi cheng jie xue sheng shi dang de an li, ru guo wo men cong jiao yu cheng jie quan de jiao du lai guan cha, bu nan fa xian, jiao yu gong zuo zhe zi ji ye que shi hai mei you ba wo hao cheng jie de chi du, shao bu liu shen jiu ke neng yue jie. suo yi shuo, jiao yu cheng jie quan hen you bi yao, dan shi yi ding yao you biao zhun you shi shi xi ze lai bao zhang qi shi shi. ye zhi you zhe yang, cheng jie quan cai neng zai fa hui xian shi zuo yong de tong shi, ye de dao jue da duo shu xue sheng jia zhang de li jie yu zhi chi.   cheng jie ye shi yi zhong jiao yu    pan duo yin   zuo wei yi ming jia zhang, wo ren wei, jiao yu ben shen bao han zhe cheng jie de yi wei. dui dai bu qiu shang jin huo wei fan xiao yuan ji lv de xue sheng, lao shi jiu ying dang ji yu shi du de cheng jie, cheng jie ye shi yi zhong jiao yu, jiao yu de nei rong bu neng mei you cheng jie. zai jiao yu zhong guo yu qiang diao shang shi he gu li, shen zhi hao wu bao liu di guo fen gu li, ye shi pian mian di shen zhi shi pian ji de, bing bu li yu xue sheng jian quan ren ge de pei yang. zai chang dao biao yang jiang li shang shi jiao yu de tong shi, bu ying gai hu shi cheng jie zai jiao yu zhong de ji ji zuo yong. qi shi, wo guo jiao yu fa ming que gui ding, xue xiao ji qi ta jiao yu ji gou you" dui shou jiao yu zhe jin xing xue ji guan li, shi shi jiang li huo chu fen" de quan li. zhe zhi shao zai yi ding cheng du shang ke yi tui duan jiao shi shi yong cheng jie quan shi fa lv fu yu de yi zhong quan li.   mu qian you bi yao cong fa lv shang jin yi bu ming que cheng jie zhu ti fang shi cao zuo cheng xu cheng jie de shi yong tiao jian fan wei he cheng jie de cheng du deng, ji rang lao shi cheng jie you fa lv yi ju, ye bao zheng cheng jie de gong ping gong zheng, qi dao jiao yu xiao guo. mei you cheng jie de jiao yu shi xu ruo de jiao yu cui ruo de jiao yu bu fu ze ren de jiao yu. dan jiao yu cheng jie ye bu shi bao zhi bai bing de liang yao, xue xiao he lao shi ye yao zhong shi li de shu ren de jiao yu fang shi fang fa.   xue sheng sheng yin    ke yi pi ping dan bie wu ru ti fa    liu wen   wo zhi qian shang xiao xue shi, ban zhu ren ye shi wo men yu wen lao shi bi jiao yan li, ru guo wo men zuo ye mei you an shi wan cheng, huo zhe kao shi cheng ji bu li xiang jiu hui bei pi ping ru guo wei fan ke tang ji lv, ta hui na gun zi huo zhe jie chi da xue sheng de shou zhang xin, wo ye ai guo da. bu guo yin wei ai da de xue sheng bi jiao duo, suo yi wo ye mei you jue de zi zun xin shou dao te bie da de shang hai, ye mei you gei wo liu xia xin li yin ying, zhi shi zai sui hou shang ke shi geng ren zhen yi xie.   wo chu zhong suo zai de ban ji xue sheng xue xi cheng ji pu bian bi jiao hao, lao shi men de xing ge ye dou bi jiao wen he, ru guo you xue sheng fan cuo wu, huo zhe ying xiang lao shi zheng chang shang ke shi, lao shi ye hui pi ping, dan yi ban dou shi jiu shi lun shi di shuo, bu hui shuo wu ru xing de hua. ji shi shi lao shi te bie sheng qi, da fa lei ting shi, ding duo ye zhi shi qi shi shang bi jiao yan li, dan ye bu hui wu ru xue sheng, huo zhe ti fa xue sheng.   xian zai wo ma shang yao shang gao zhong le, hui guo tou lai kan, wo jue de ru guo xue sheng guo yu tiao pi dao dan, ying xiang ke tang xue xi ji lv, na me lao shi jiu ying gai pi ping, bu ran hui ying xiang qi ta xue sheng zheng chang shang ke. dan jin liang bu yao da xue sheng, yi shi ai da hen teng, er shi sui zhe wo men zhu jian zhang da, ai da ye rong yi shang zi zun xin, rang wo men zai tong xue zhong mei you mian zi.

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